Wednesday, March 09, 2016

           Library Science Emerging Career Trends 2015 

  1. Emerging Career Trends for Information Professionals A Snapshot of Job Postings Spring 2015 1 Innovative Learning. Global Connections.
  2.  Most Common Words Across All Job Postings 2 Word cloud generated by Tagul (
  3. Introduction this report presents an informal analysis and discussion of a collection of 400 recent job postings for LIS (library and information science) professionals in general and LIS-specific job search sites during February-April, 2015. The snapshot of job postings can provide some insight about the current job market, how it is trending, and helps LIS professionals prepare themselves to engage in this market either as a job candidate or a hiring decision-maker.
  4. Level of technology skill (both general and LIS-specific) is required in today’s job market. Many job postings emphasized the ability to use multiple databases, library systems, and office software applications. Emphasis is being placed on enhancing the visitor/user/patron experience via engaged customer service, culturally-aware communication, technology instruction, and innovative outreach programs.
  5. The needs to nimbly navigate, describe, and preserve both analog and digital content is becoming a daily reality for more and more LIS professionals. The scope of research and references services has been and is expanding to encompass the support of remote/virtual queries. Ø More positions require engaging with and facilitating digital humanities and digital scholarship projects. LIS professionals are increasingly being called upon to provide technical support for various technologies & applications that users navigate
  1. Knowledge of Microsoft’s office software team collaboration product SharePoint was specifically mentioned as a desired skill in several posts. LIS professionals are increasingly being sought after for corporate jobs such as user experience designer, knowledge manager, and business requirements analyst. The line between “pure” library functions and “pure” IT functions is being blurred. In many work settings, librarian and information technology functions are being merged and/or librarians are being expected to interact more closely with IT in the delivery of digital resources and services.
  2. Statistical Findings The following eight slides present statistical views of the collected job posting data: q US Job Locations by State q Types of Hiring Organizations q Job Type Breakdown q Previous Job Experience Breakdown q Top 20 Job Duties Across All Jobs q Top 20 Job Skills Across All Jobs q Top 20 Job Duties for Emerging Jobs q Top 20 Job Skills for Emerging Jobs 7
  3. US Job Locations by State 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Job % CA NY TX DC IL MA PA VA CO FL MD GA NJ MO AL CT WA IN 1% or less: AK, DE, HI, IA, ID, KS, KY, LA, ME, MI, MN, NC, ND, NE, NH, NM, NV, OH, OR, RI, SC, TN, UT, VT, WI, WV, Virtual/Remote
  4. Types of Hiring Organizations 9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Hiring Organization % Academic/Research Corporate/Business Public Library Government/Military Legal Medical/Pharmaceutical /Science Museum and Archives News and Media
  5. Job Type Breakdown 10 TRADITIONAL EVOLVING TRADITIONAL EMERGING 38% 25% 37% Traditional: Jobs which primarily require skills such as cataloguing, reference desk services, collection management, circulation services, etc. Evolving Traditional: Jobs which require a combination of more traditional skills and emerging skills. Emerging: Jobs which mainly require emerging skills.
  6. Previous Job Experience Breakdown 11 PREVIOUS JOB EXPERIENCE REQUIRED PREVIOUS JOB EXPERIENCE NOT REQUIRED 51% 49% A majority of positions required some level of previous experience. However, categorizing the experience as previous “job” experience required a fair amount of subjective assessment. In many cases where a prior experience requirement was indicated, the posting did not explicitly indicate that the experience needed to be acquired from tenure in a professional position. If a job posting contained wording such as “web programming experience required,” but did not specify whether or not the experience could be fulfilled based on academic or personal/self-directed experience, then the job was classified as “Previous Job Experience Not Required.” Some postings specifically indicated whether or not, for example, education could be substituted for experience. In those cases, the jobs were classified as “Previous Job Experience Not Required.”
  7. Most Common Job Duties Across All Jobs 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Job Duties % intra/inter-organizational collaboration/liaising training/instruction collection/development management technology assessment/trend spotting e-resources access/management metadata creation/management communication outreach/program development/delivery cataloguing website/web services development/management ontology/taxonomy technical support technology training digital projects/initiatives development/management vendor/licensing management business requirements analysis/creation user centered design information literacy acquisitions/ILL digital preservation
  8. Most Common Job Skills Across All Jobs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Skills % communication collaboration & teamwork research/reference new/emerging technologies specialized subject matter expertise analysis & problem solving customer service database use/design/management office software digital library/digital content management metadata web technology development/management e-resources teaching/developing instructional content cataloguing staff supervision/management integrated library systems/software
  9. Most Common Job Duties for Emerging Jobs 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Job Duties % intra/inter-organizational collaboration/liaising website/web services development/management technology assessment/trendspotting digital collection/assets - development/management technology training reference/research services database use/design/management communication technical support training/instruction metadata creation/management business requirements analysis/creation user centered design data analysis digital projects/initiatives development/management staff management/supervision taxonomy project management e-resources access/management social media development/management
  10. Most Common Job Skills for Emerging Jobs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Skills % communication collaboration & teamwork emerging technologies digital library/digital content management web technology development/management database use/design/management analysis & problem solving subject matter expertise web programming UX/user centered design/requirements gathering/analysis metadata office software teaching/developing instructional content staff supervision/management digital project management research/reference customer service
  11. Sample Job Titles, Duties and Skills 16 The following 13 slides present sample job titles, duties and skills filtered from job postings and categorized by both key functional areas and organization type. This data snapshot provides a broad but representative picture of today’s dynamic, challenging and exciting LIS job market; the diversity of responsibilities associated with current jobs; and the skills that are necessary to compete and succeed.
  12.  Sample Job Titles: Coordinator for Digital Collection Services o Digital Collections Librarian o Director of Library Collections Collections Analysis Librarian o Metadata and Cataloging Specialist o Library Associate – Cataloging Section o Metadata and Cataloging Services Librarian o Circulation Librarian o Library Assistant o Access Services Librarian o Digital Services Librarian o Project Archivist o Electronic Resources Cataloger o Metadata Assistant Sample Duties Develop, manage, and advance digital collections Upload digital content and develop metadata Develop strategies to manage library collections Engage in collaborative collection building with other institutions Create original cataloging of print/digital materials Answer cataloging questions Develop information literacy instruction Charging/discharging library materials Plan and deliver library programs Oversee circulation and reference services Collections, Cataloging, Circulation Sample Skills Digital library content management Metadata standards and schemas Negotiate acquisition and licensing of online resources Teamwork, collaboration, and liaising MARC, BIBFRAME, EAD, Dublin Core Customer service Intercultural/diversity-related skills Integrated library systems; Physical strength/dexterity Project management; Leadership Research/reference
  13. Sample Job Titles:  Reference Librarian Reference Wizard Public Access & Internet Reference Librarian , Research and Reference Specialist , Research Associate , Manager – Research & Information, Research Analyst – Corporate Research , Virtual Researcher , Research & Emerging Technologies Librarian o Research Data Specialist o Senior Search Specialist , Content Researcher o Reference Services & Outreach Coordinator , Digital Search Information Analyst Sample Duties Sample Skills Provide reference and research services in person and virtually Research/reference; Specific subject matter skills Teach patrons and staff how to use technology Integrated library systems and software; intercultural/diversity-related skills Oversee circulation and reference services Staff supervision/management Support student-learning and course-related research Teaching and developing instructional content Support research requests from all areas of the firm Knowledge of a range of online databases Delivery high-quality research reports Problem solving & analysis; Office software; Communication skills Provide expertise in the design of discovery tools Web technology development Provide searching service and support Search performance, navigation, taxonomy & user experience Reference and Research
  14. Sample Job Titles: o Instructional Design Librarian o Emerging Technologies & Instruction Librarian o Manager, Instructional Design o Instruction and Outreach Archivist o Reference and Instruction Librarian o Engagement and Outreach Manager o Online Learning Librarian o Learning Commons Library Assistant o Director of Learning Resources o Coordinator for Digital Learning o Knowledge Management & Training Lead o Curriculum Technology Support Developer o Distance Education Librarian o Education & Human Development Librarian o Educational Technology Support Specialist Sample Duties Sample Skills Identify & implement instructional technologies Teaching & developing instructional content Evaluate instructional technologies Problem solving & analysis; Vendor management Develop instruction for OCLC products & services E-resources; Developing instructional content Develop outreach programs Customer service; Communication skills; Intercultural/diversity- related skills Deliver outreach in support of digital humanities projects Teamwork, collaboration, and liaising; Specific subject- matter expertise Design and create online learning tools Web programming; Technology support Champion knowledge sharing strategies Information management; Database use/design/management Work collaboratively with teachers and administrators Teamwork, collaboration, and liaising Instruction and Outreach
  15. Sample Job Titles: o Knowledge Services Manager , Library Director o Assistant Director of Digital Strategies o Head Librarian o Head of Digital Library Development o Head Librarian – UX & Digital Resources o Head – Digital Innovation & Stewardship o Head of Information Discovery Team o Director of Online Libraries o Director of Archives, Critical Data Element & Taxonomy VP Web Manager , Taxonomy Manager , Digital Scholarship Services Manager Sample Duties Sample Skills Provide digital content management & training Digital library/digital content management; Teaching & developing instructional content Lead library’s team of professionals & support staff Leadership; Teamwork, collaboration, and liaising Establish & direct strategic and tactical goals Project management; Communication skills Articulate, promote, and support the library’s mission Communication skills; Grant writing Lead, manage, & administer library services Leadership; Customer service; Communication skills Design & implement an overall digital library strategy Digital library technology/trends Enhance physical & online user engagement User experience design Create new digital library portals and projects Digital library/digital content management; Web technology development & management Encourage research and innovation Research/reference services; Emerging technologies; Leadership Manage remote corps of online librarian staff Staff supervision/management Management and Administration
  16. Sample Job Titles: o Archivist o Project Archivist o Processing Archivist o Digital Asset Archivist o Digital Media Archivist o Archives & Manuscripts Catalog Librarian o Archival Processing Coordinator o Digital Preservation Project Manager o Records and Archive Manager o Director of Archives o Curator of Quaker Collections o Records Manager o Records Management Consultant Sample Duties Sample Skills Arrange, describe, and catalog collections Metadata standards and schemas; Cataloging Establish and maintain a digital archiving program Digital preservation & access Create collection inventories and finding aids Archives/archival processing Implement media asset mgt. workflow protocols Digital library/digital content management; Problem solving & analysis Organize records for digitization Archives/archival processing; Digital library/digital content management Create a digital preservation plan Digital preservation & access; Digital project management Document imaging and indexing Digital imaging; Metadata standards and schemas Appraise and accession collections Archives/archival processing; Specific subject matter expertise Perform gap analysis of current record mgt. programs Problem solving & analysis; Communication Archives and Preservation
  17. Sample Job Titles: o Social Media SME o Web Content Manager o Web Manager o Web/Electronic Services Coordinator o System & Web Applications Librarian o Internet Reference Librarian o Digital Technologies Development Librarian o Digital Initiative and Innovation Librarian o Content Curator o News Indexing Analyst o Director of Online Libraries Sample Duties Sample Skills Build social media research strategy Social media development/management Provide web-based access to the library’s collections Web programming Provide innovative technology solutions Emerging technologies; Communication skills Provide virtual reference services Research/reference; Customer service Deliver an enhanced information environment Information management Develop suite of online learning tools Teaching and developing instructional content; Web programming Promote projects via social media Social media; Communication skills Use software to tag data from social media sites Metadata standards and schemas; Analysis & problem solving; Web programming Develop & maintain library web applications Web programming; Time/project management Web and Social Media
  18. Sample Job Titles: o Head of Research & Emerging Technologies o Systems & Emerging Technology Librarian o Emerging Technologies Coordinator o Electronic Resources Manager o Systems and Digital Services Librarian o Humanities Librarian o Librarian – Systems & Technology o Learning Commons Library Assistant o Technology Librarian o Library Technology Professional 2 o Library Assistant o Technology & Business Community Engagement Librarian o Research & Emerging Technologies Librarian o Digital Library Services Specialist Sample Duties Sample Skills Upgrade library systems to improve user experience User experience design; Integrated library systems/software; Technical support Explore emerging trends in humanities librarianship Subject-matter expertise; Digital library technologies and trends Support current & emerging technologies for the library Emerging technologies; Communication skills Understand the functions of a 21st Century Learning Commons Emerging trends in instructional technologies Support patron use of current, new & emerging technologies Emerging technologies; Customer service; Intercultural/diversity-related skills Provide innovative technology solutions Communication skills; Technology training; Vendor management Evaluate current & emerging technologies Analysis & problem solving Work with vendors to deliver innovative services Vendor/Time/Project management Develop & maintain library web applications Web programming Emerging Technologies
  19. Sample Job Titles: o Metadata Specialist o Information Specialist o Business Analyst–Digital Asset Management o Media Inventory Assistant o Information & Web Content Specialist o Critical Data Element & Taxonomy Vice Pres. o Senior User Experience Architect o Taxonomy Manager o Digital Archivist o Data Curator o User Experience/UX Designer o Digital Search Information Analyst o Content Analyst o Data Modeler o Geospatial Cataloger o Data Specialist o Information Architect o Metadata Asset Administrator o Big Data Analyst o UX Analyst o Information Governance Specialist Sample Duties Sample Skills Index content in company database Taxonomy and metadata Manage & develop digital media R&D resources Digital library/digital content management Design interactive training programs Teaching & developing instructional content; Problem solving & analysis Provide reference and information assistance Research/reference; Subject- matter expertise Define & advance the firm’s data governance strategy Information management; Analysis & problem solving; Teamwork/collaboration Discover user requirements & define solutions User centered design; Communication skills Design & maintain product categorization schemes Metadata standards & schemas; Problem solving & analysis Define data analytics resources Research; Database use/design/management Analyze searches & provide solutions and reporting Search analysis/technologies Corporations and Businesses
  20. Sample Job Titles: HEALTH/SCIENCE o Web/Electronic Services Coordinator o Data Services Librarian o Librarian (Medical Sciences) o Electronic Resources Librarian GOVERNMENT/MILITARY o Technical Information Specialist o Systems & Metadata Librarian o Legislative Reference Librarian o Archive Technician o Librarian – Central Intelligence Agency LAW o Access Services Librarian o Reference Librarian o Research Librarian MUSIC/ART o Photo Cataloger o Digitization Specialist o Coordinator – Visual Reference Services o Archivist Sample Duties Sample Skills Provide proactive technology and research support Research/reference; Technical support Provide web-based access to the library’s collections Web technology development Support intelligence mission via information resources Specific subject matter expertise; Information management Maintain and organize media library Digital project management; Information management Write, edit & manage law library website Website development and maintenance; Communication skills Provide access to law library’s collections Digital library/digital content management Document & preserve historic photo collection Archives/archival processing Create online access to 10,000 pieces of art Taxonomy and metadata; Specific subject matter expertise Organize, promote, and oversee collections Archival processing; Communication skills; Leadership Provide general reference and information services Research/reference Special Libraries
  21. Sample Job Titles: o Resource Sharing Librarian o Architecture Librarian o Japanese Cataloging Librarian o Digital Humanities Librarian o Middle School Librarian o Librarian o Library Media Specialist o Digital Scholarship Librarian o Digital Preservation & Scholarship Project Manager o Head Librarian o GIS Services Specialist o Assessment Librarian o Distance Education & E-Resources Librarian o Image Technologies & Visual Literacy Librarian Sample Duties Sample Skills Oversee intercampus library service delivery Integrated library systems/software Develop architecture library’s special collections Specific subject matter expertise; Archives/archival processing Perform original cataloging in the Japanese language Specific subject matter expertise; Cataloging Deliver instruction in digital methods in the humanities Teaching & developing instructional content; Digital humanities Liaison to academic departments Teamwork, collaboration, and liaising Support innovative pedagogies & engaged scholarship Leadership; Teamwork, collaboration, and liaising Direct the library GIS support services & resources Geographic information systems Improve student experience services & programs Communication skills; User experience design Support student & faculty research projects Research/reference services K-12, Academic and Research Libraries
  22. Sample Duties Sample Skills Classify world financial & economic news Taxonomy and metadata Use databases & the internet to verify metadata Database use; Online searching skills Manage the media asset workflow Digital project management Research video using in- house & external resources Research/reference skills News and Media Organizations Sample Job Titles: o News Indexing Analyst o Researcher o Digital Librarian o Digital Archivist
  23. Sample Job Titles: o Librarian – Children & Teen Services Adult Services Librarian o Patron Experience Associate o Circulation Supervisor o ILL Library Assistant o Local History Librarian o Youth Services Librarian o Reference Librarian o Public Services Librarian o Digital Services Manager Technology Trainer o Technology & Business Community Engagement Librarian o E-Content Librarian Sample Duties Sample Skills Assists patrons in locating and using materials Customer service Organize and carry out storytelling programs Communication skills Provide technology expertise and training to customers Technology support; Teaching and developing instructional content Support and promote outreach programs Leadership; Intercultural/diversity-related skills Provide programming related to local history Specific subject matter expertise; Communication skills Oversee all youth collections and programs Customer service; Communication skills Staff the main reference desk Research/reference skills; Customer service Deliver dynamic learning experiences Teaching and developing instructional content Develop relationships with area technologists & entrepreneurs Communication skills Public Libraries
  24. Sample Job Titles: o World War I Daybook Research Assistant o Director – New York Transit Museum o Library & Information Services Associate Digital Archivist o Curator  Coordinate – Visual Reference Services o Project Archivist o Digitization Specialist o Reference Librarian Museums and Heritage Societies Sample Duties Sample Skills Process archival collections Archives/archival processing Develop long-range collections management plan Project management; Communication skills Create an outstanding visitor experience Communication skills; Intercultural/diversity- related skills Oversee all archival units Staff supervision/management; Communication skills Conduct regular research & reference assistance Research/reference skills; Customer service Create online access to institutional objects Digital library content management Provide genealogical reference services Customer service; Database use; Communication skills
  25. Use social media and mobile apps. Emerging librarians who actively use social media and mobile apps are better able to engage with today’s user communities. And if you’re a gamer, you’re already positioning yourself to better understand library gamification efforts to enhance users’ experiences with collection engagement. Ø Learn about user experience design/user centered design. Be aware of how apps and websites are architected to improve the interaction between the user and the software. Emerging librarians who are user-experience savvy are better positioned to teach, build, customize, and promote their institutions’ user interaction platforms and products. Ø Be aware of and become conversant in the ways in which taxonomy permeates your daily life. From the categorization of items on online shopping sites to the organization of your own personal image library, taxonomy plays a key role in managing today’s growing information resources. Ø Seek out opportunities in your personal, academic, and professional life to develop teamwork, communication, and collaboration skills. Today’s library professional is inclusive, culturally aware, ready to share, and eager to engage with others. 30 Tips for LIS Job Seekers
  26. Keep current on emerging technologies, products, and trends through a variety of sources like social media, websites, blogs, digital newsletters, events, seminars, lectures/presentations, and publications. Don’t confine yourself to exclusively LIS- related sources. Access general and business technology news/products resources such as,, and  Become an internet power searcher. Learn how to use advanced search techniques to become more effective at conducting web research. Ø Be familiar with office software apps like MS-Office and Google apps (e.g. Google Docs). Learn about data analysis and data/information visualization. Understanding the tools and techniques used to analyze and visualize the vast and continually growing amounts of digital data available to a wide range of users is becoming increasingly important for today’s information professional. Ø Learn about Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The ability to understand and use GIS is becoming increasingly important as more users engage with digital geographic data in a wide array of applications. 31 Tips for LIS Job Seekers, cont’d.
  27. The job postings were collected from general and LIS-targeted websites to provide examples of a broad range of jobs. The results of this sampling methodology are not representative of the entire LIS job market, but instead present an informal snapshot across a few months. For each posting, the job title, hiring organization name and location, source URL, job description, required educational qualifications, and job duties and skills were collected and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. A subjective assessment was made for those cases were there was not a clear distinction made in the posting between “duties” and “skills.” Finally, a subjective assessment and classification of the job type as “Emerging,” “Evolving Traditional,” or “Traditional” was made based on the degree to which the job’s skills and duties emphasized emerging proficiencies, such as digital content management, user centered design, web design, website administration, and social media. 32 General Methodology
  28. Search Methodology: General Job Sites General job sites such as and tech-centric sites such as were searched using broadly defined keywords such as “library science” and “information science.” The results were then filtered in order to include only those jobs which specifically listed a degree in LIS as a pre-requisite (either alone or listed among other acceptable degrees). These searches yielded a robust sampling of positions for LIS professionals with emerging, marketable skills such as user experience design, web design and programming, and knowledge management. 33
  29. Search Methodology: LIS Job Sites Websites targeting LIS professionals were searched by specific keywords in an attempt to select a broad sample of jobs for candidates with emerging skill sets, as well as those with more traditional skill sets. Keywords included: “collection development,” “collections management,” “information literacy,” “information professional,” “library science,” “information science,” “reference services,” “research,” “social media,” “archival,” “metadata,” “catalog,” “archives,” “data visualization,” “digital archives,” “digital assets,” “digital collections,” “digital content,” “electronic resources,” “emerging technologies,” “new technologies,” “digital humanities,” “digital library,” and “content management.” 34
  30. Examples of LIS Job Sites science/professional/