Monday, April 22, 2013

100 Innovations that Have Changed Librarianship

  1. Personal computer (Mac, PC) that are affordable to the average person
  2. Internet access
  3. Electronic journals
  4. Google
  5. Information professionals entering the IT field
  6. Ability to meet multiple learning styles through multimedia - images, podcasts, videos
  7. Multiple channels for sharing/communicati ng
  8. Social networking tools - For example: Wikis such as MediaWiki and Confluence; blogs like WordPress, Typepad, Blogger, and Blogspot; Facebook; Professional networks like LinkedIn and Plaxo; Multimedia sites like YouTube and Flickr.
  9. Ease of multiple communication channels - phone, email, online
  10. High-speed and remote computing - broadband, WiFi
  11. Web conferencing
  12. Virtual worlds such as Second Life
  13. Inexpensive digital storage
  14. digitization
  15. OCR
  16. OPACs
  17. printers
  18. abstracts databases
  19. fulltext databases
  20. self checkout machines
  21. book vending machines
  22. print on demand
  23. wikipedia
  24. CD-roms
  25. modems
  26. Dialog and other dial up services
  27. hypertext linking
  28. gopher and veronica
  29. DRM
  30. institutional repositories
  31. electronic classroom management systems (ie. Blackboard)
  32. synchronous electronic classroom software (ie. Elluminate)
  33. electric date and time stampers
  34. barcodes
  35. RFID
  36. integrated library systems
  37. OCLC
  38. copy cataloging
  39. no limit memo field
  40. scanners
  41. typewriters
  42. Security systems
  43. Slender security strips
  44. Climate control equipment, to prevent deterioration of materials
  45. Copier
  46. Book trucks
  47. Magazine slanted shelves
  48. The MARC record
  49. Interlibrary Loan (ILL)
  50. streaming media
  51. metadata
  52. classification systems (LC and Dewey)
  53. word processing
  54. Twitter
  55. mobile libraries
  56. Knowledge management
  57. document management
  58. barcoding
  59. Dublin Core
  60. Mosaic web browser
  61. Tags
  62. Federated searches
  63. Microfilm/microfich e
  64. Texas Instruments (TI) Silent 700
  65. S. R. Ranganathan' s 5 laws of library science (1931)
  66. Michael Gorman's (1998) 5 additional suggested laws:
     Libraries serve humanity.
     Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated.
    Use technology intelligently to enhance service.
    Protect free access to knowledge.
    Honor the past and create the future.
  67. Open stacks
  68. In-depth subject specialists as the core of special librarianship
  69. Competitive intelligence gathering
  70. Working the "white space"
  71. Gutenberg's printing press
  72. Compact shelving
  73. Copyright laws
  74. Document delivery services
  75. Information brokers
  76. KWIC - Key Word In Context
  77. Computerization of cataloging.. OCLC and OPACs do not begin to present the importance of not having to type duplicate copies of cards and file catalog cards. Also, the customer can do a keyword search without knowing how a subject heading or main entry (which is now a passe concept) was done. Keyword searching also means that there is less need to customize headings to local usage.
  78. Digitized indexes and abstracts - instead of manually doing repeated searching through individual months or years of print volumes spans of years can be quickly searched. Also, the digitization/ computerization of these indexes allows keyword searching which can retrieve pertinent items that assigned desciptors do not cover.
  79. Digitization of full text of articles and now books. This allows desktop access to quality information. Also, it allows the compilation of bibliographies where reviewing the actual text of the document is necessary for determination for including a document. This is not something that could be done so easily even ten years ago.
  80. Chemical information services (CAS, Beilstein, Gmelin)
  81. Internet and communications protocols (TCP/IP, telnet, FTP, etc.)
  82. Mash-ups
  83. Introduction of the term, "Information Science" to replace or supplement "Library Science"
  84. The Commons and reinvention of libraries as "community centers" instead "storehouses of knowledge"
  85. Centralized reference
  86. AACR / AACR2R / RDA developments
  87. LC card standardization
  88. Poly-Vinyl Acetate for book repair
  89. Copyright legislation
  90. Chemical structure and substructure searching, using line notations and connection tables. This changed the face of chemical information retrieval.
  91. Carnegie Libraries across the United States, built from the donations of steel magnet and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie.
  92. PubMed open-access electronic version of Index Medicus
  93. e-books
  94. e-book readers like Amazon's Kindle
  95. IP based access to provide the digitised information campus wide
  96. Photocopier
  97. Boolean search capability
  98. Full-text searching
  99. World Wide Web
  100. Cell phones
  101. automated serials tracking